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    Monday, December 24, 2018

    MACHINE LANGUAGE

    1.2>1 MACHINE LANGUAGE


    Machine language is called the language of the computer as computer understands only this language which is language consists of sequence of 0's and 1's Using this language whatever you want to input to computer has to be supplied in the form of strings of 0's and 1's. For example character "A" may be represented as 01100101, 0 itself may be represented as 01001000 and so on.

    1.2>2 ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE


    Assembly language, commonly called assembly, asm or symbolic code, is a human-readable notation for the machine language that specific computer architecture uses. Machine language , a pattern of bits encoding machine operations, is made readable by replacing the raw values with symbols called mnemonics. 
           For example, a computer with the appropriate processor will understand this X86 machine language .
                                                          10011000001100001
    For programmers, however , it is easier to remember the equivalent assembly language representation.
                                                           MOV AL,061H
    Which means to move the hexadecimal value 61(97 decimal) into the processor register with the name "ALL". The mnemonic "MOV" is short for "move", and a comma-separated list of arguments or parameters follows it; this is a typical assembly language statement. Transforming assembly into machine language is accomplished by an assembler, and the revers by a dissembler.

    1.2>3 HIGH-LEVEL LANGUAGE


    We have seen that assembly and machine language require deep knowledge of computer hardware whereas in higher language you have only the instruction in English words and logic of the problem irrespective of the type of computer you using . High level languages are simple languages that use English and Mathematical symbols like +,-,*,/,%, etc. for its program construction. High-level language enables programmers to concentrate more on the logic and less on the intricacies of the  particular computer on which users are working.
          Use of high-level languages makes program easy to read , write and understand. Any higher level language has to be converted into machine language for the computer to understand and for that a translator is required which specific for a specific high-level language. For example a translator  for a "C" programming language will be different from a translator for FORTRON language.

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